You can achieve what you want using column filters:
Column filters are applied AFTER a search to restrict the list of files to those that match the text of the filter. If you don't prefix the value with < > = then it's a straight forward text match, e.g. just entering
would restrict the list to files with a date with the text '05/10' in it. Since the expression can be any valid Boolean expression you can do things like:
(Note: examples using UK date format dd/mm/yyyy)
20/*/2014 - All files modified on the 20th of the month in 2014
20/09 OR 21/09 - All files modified 20th Sep or 21 Sep in any year
This example shows all files modified on '04/08' or '24/11' in any year:
Be aware that since the time value is included in the match just entering a single number, e.g. 4, would match both the value from the year, e.g. 2014, or the time, e.g. 13:04:31.